Gleeson, capped 27 times, broke into the Ireland team in 2002 and was a regular for his nation until arm and leg injuries curtailed his progress two years later.
However, Gleeson bounced back from those problems to earn four more caps for his country but has decided to call it a day at the age of 31.
"I have thoroughly enjoyed my time with Leinster Rugby and am honoured to have played for both my province and country," Gleeson said.
"My decision to retire is largely inspired by my desire to explore new avenues and opportunities and I feel now is the time to do that.
"I would like to take this opportunity to thank my coaches, all the support staff at Leinster, my friends and family for their support over the last seven years."