The World Cup final try-scorer bagged a hat-trick, including two devastating 30-metre sprints.
Fellow wing Josh Lewsey, full-back Iain Balshaw, fly-half Paul Grayson and debutant Chris Jones also touched down.
Grayson, replacement for the injured Jonny Wilkinson, added three penalties and three conversions to complete a 20-point haul.
Italy produced some outstanding rugby in patches, with full-back Andrea Masi a major threat, but they were restricted to a drop-goal and two penalties from fly-half Rima Wakarua.
RBS Man of the Match Robinson's spectacular 22nd-minute solo touchdown showed the hosts that none of last season's outstanding form had been lost, despite a much-changed side.
There was never the remotest hint of England suffering a shock defeat in their first Test match since beating Australia to win the World Cup three months ago.
There were times when the world champions appeared to miss the talismanic presence of retired skipper Martin Johnson, yet it was still a case of a job well done on their first appearance since lifting the Webb Ellis Trophy last November.
They scored 24 points without reply during the second period, and head coach Sir Clive Woodward was able to use all seven of his substitutes.
England maintained their 50-point average from three Six Nations visits to Rome, and once again, they look like being the team to beat.