The 38-year-old beat off a shortlist of top candidates from around the world to land the high-profile Murrayfield job.
The news follows the much improved RBS 6 Nations Championship display of Matt Williams' men against England, and Anderton has called on the whole of Scottish rugby to unite and build on the battling display at Murrayfield.
"It's a time of great change in Scottish rugby and I will be helping to lead the debate and challenging the status quo because we cannot afford to stand still," declared Anderton.
"We need a winning rugby culture where we don't accept performance where are teams are not winning.
"We want our teams at all levels to be winning and the most important thing to do that is to have unity in our game.
"I saw some of the performances by the Scotland team at the match on Saturday, and some said 'Isn't Matt Williams doing a great job?' - I think he is.
"But it wasn't just just Matt Williams who produced the performances of some of those players.
"It was the professional coaches and the club who developed those players, the schools and the volunteers.
"It was everyone involved in rugby and that's what we've got to deliver.
"We've got to deliver when everyone in the game is working in the same direction.
"I'm sure with the support of the rugby public and the rugby stake holders we can make Scotland stronger in rugby."
Anderton was promoted from marketing director after a far-reaching international search ended with the SRU revealing he was the unanimous choice.
Chairman David Mackay said: "He had the unanimous support of the board and follows an international search and a short-list of five very interesting and capable candidates.
"It is another fundamental step in bringing radical change in the running of Scottish rugby.
"Phil has completely transformed the SRU's commercial activities and has brought a new dimension to the organisation."