The 32-year-old Saracens star won the last of his 51 caps when coming off the bench in the World Cup semi-final win over France and was an unused substitute for the final against Australia in Sydney.
He joins former England captain Martin Johnson in calling time on his international career.
Bracken told the BBC: "I have done everything I wanted to do but the ambition to play for England is no longer there.
"Like Martin, I've become battle-weary and the time is right to walk away.
"I wanted to retire straight after the World Cup but I couldn't bring myself to make a final decision.
"Sir Clive Woodward persuaded me not to, but I've had time to reflect since then. You need to give 100% if you are going to be successful in this game.
"I had decided that the World Cup would be my last throw and I went into the tournament to give it everything.
"Having done that, having been involved at international level since 1993, I decided the time had come to stand down."
Bracken made his England debut against New Zealand just over 10 years ago and also toured South Africa with the British Lions in 1997.