England Saxons boss Lancaster will head up a temporary coaching team also including scrum guru, and former Lion, Graham Rowntree and Saracens first-team coach Andy Farrell.
Lancaster, who coached an England XV against Barbarians in June, was made the RFU's head of elite player development in 2008 and has also been in charge of the Saxons.
"All three of us are really excited about the opportunity ahead. Andrew has done an outstanding job at Saracens and the Saxons; Graham has enormous respect from the players and has vast experience and I am confident that we can work well together as a coaching team," said Lancaster.
"The World Cup was enormously disappointing but we shouldn't forget that England won 10 out of 13 games this year and a Six Nations title. We have a promising group of players to go forward with and the challenge for Graham, Andy and myself is to get the best out of them."
Former Lion tourist Rowntree was appointed scrummaging coach by Johnson in 2008 and was also part of the Sir Ian McGeechan's coaching team for the 2009 tour of South Africa.
Meanwhile former Wigan rugby league player Farrell turned to union in 2005 before taking up a coaching role with Saracens. He was promoted to first-team coach in 2010 but has been seconded to England for the duration of the Championship.
"It was important that, following the recommendations of the Professional Game Board and the commitment we made as an RFU Board last week to implement them, an Interim Head Coach was appointed as soon as possible," said RFU Acting Chief Executive Stephen Brown.
"Stuart is not only an experienced coach but his role as Head of Elite Player Development puts him at the forefront of producing international players.
"He will be well supported by Graham, with all his experience with England and the British Lions and Andy, who has helped Saracens become one of the leading clubs in the country and we are grateful to them for allowing Andy to join us on a temporary basis.
"We believe this coaching team is the right one to collectively take England forward in the short term."
The RFU are still searching for a full-time England coach after Martin Johnson quit in the wake of a dismal World Cup.
John Kirwan, Jim Mallinder and Nick Mallett are the leading candidates to take up the permanent position in the summer.