Jones is the only debutant in the starting XV but he is joined by two players making their first starts in the 6 Nations.
His club colleague David Denton is named at No8 despite having only won a single cap in the friendly win over Ireland last summer, while fellow Edinburgh star Ross Rennie wins a place on the openside flank.
Robinson has made eight changes in personnel from the narrow defeat to England at the World Cup as Scotland look to start the season with a first Calcutta Cup triumph in four years.
Dan Parks is named at fly-half in the absence of injured fly-half Ruaridh Jackson, while Nick de Luca benefits from Joe Ansbro's enforced absence at outside centre.
There is no place for former skipper Al Kellock as Jim Hamilton and Richie Gray are preferred in the second row, with Lions tourists Euan Murray and new captain Ross Ford joined by Alan Jacobsen in the front row.
Gloucester blindside Al Strokosch completes the forward pack, with 2005 Lion Chris Cusiter partnering Parks at halfback.
Rory Lamont takes over from the retired Chris Paterson at full back, while his brother Sean starts at inside centre and Max Evans is named on the left wing.
"I've been pleased with the consistency Lee Jones has shown and he fully deserves to win his first cap," said Robinson.
"Form has played a part in selection. Edinburgh's qualification for the Heineken Cup quarter-finals and Glasgow's performances in the RaboDirect PRO12 mean that competition for places has intensified, particularly in the back-row.
"But, as ever, we select to win an international rugby match. It is not by accident that these games are referred to as Test matches - because that is what they are, the ultimate in physical and mental challenge and that is certainly always on the menu when England are our opponents.
"We have experienced players in our team and they must make that knowledge count by helping the team to a successful start on Saturday."
Scotland side to face England (Murrayfield, Saturday, 5pm)
15 Rory Lamont, 14 Lee Jones, 13 Nick De Luca, 12 Sean Lamont, 11 Max Evans, 10 Dan Parks, 9 Chris Cusiter, 8 David Denton, 7 Ross Rennie, 6 Alasdair Strokosch, 5 Jim Hamilton, 4 Richie Gray, 3 Euan Murray, 2Ross Ford (capt), 1 Allan Jacobsen
Replacements:16 Scott Lawson, 17 Geoff Cross, 18 Alastair Kellock, 19 John Barclay, 20 Mike Blair, 21 Greig Laidlaw, 22 Graeme Morrison
NB Bold denotes Lion