Scrum-halves Mike Blair and Chris Cusiter both make the cut and they are joined by fellow tourists Ross Ford and Euan Murray.
All 28 available members of Scotland's World Cup squad have been selected and they are complemented by six uncapped players.
They are Lee Jones, Stuart Hogg, Duncan Weir, Robert Harley, Fraser McKenzie and Steven Shingler.
"I am pleased to reflect on the winning displays we have seen from both Edinburgh Rugby and Glasgow Warriors over the last two months and the contribution a number of our uncapped players have made to them," said Robinson.
"I think what's also encouraging is that a number of players who have forced their way into contention in that period and who have not made the squad this time, are really knocking on the door and that competition for places can only raise our standards, so this Scotland squad can be very much a work in progress over the coming months.
"We said after the Rugby World Cup that the challenge the Scotland squad must confront is to get on with the business of winning international rugby matches. Potential counts for nothing if you don't deliver results."
Swansea-born Shingler is one of the biggest surprises. The former Scarlets centre joined London Irish in the summer and qualifies for Scotland through his mother.
"I would be massively proud to play for Scotland," said Shingler.
"My upbringing from my mother means I've always known about Scotland. I've got my gran, auntie, two uncles and two cousins in Langholm and other than the past year I've been up 15 years on the bounce to see them around the time of the Common Riding and I've competed in the Games as well."
The squad will gather at St Andrews on January 23 before Robinson cuts it down ahead of the Championship opener with England on February 4.
Backs: Joe Ansbro (London Irish), Mike Blair (Edinburgh Rugby), Chris Cusiter (Glasgow Warriors), Simon Danielli (Ulster), Nick De Luca (Edinburgh Rugby), Max Evans (Castres), Stuart Hogg, Ruaridh Jackson (both Glasgow Warriors), Lee Jones, Greig Laidlaw (both Edinburgh Rugby), Rory Lamont (Glasgow Warriors), Sean Lamont (Scarlets), Rory Lawson (Gloucester), Graeme Morrison (Glasgow Warriors), Dan Parks (Cardiff Blues), Steven Shingler (London Irish) and Duncan Weir (Glasgow Warriors)
Forwards: John Barclay (Glasgow Warriors), Kelly Brown (Saracens), Geoff Cross, David Denton (both Edinburgh Rugby), Alasdair Dickinson (Sale Sharks), Ross Ford (Edinburgh Rugby), Richie Gray, Dougie Hall (both Glasgow Warriors), Jim Hamilton (Gloucester), Robert Harley (Glasgow Warriors), Allan Jacobsen (Edinburgh Rugby), Alastair Kellock (Glasgow Warriors), Scott Lawson (Gloucester), Moray Low (Glasgow Warriors), Fraser McKenzie (Sale Sharks), Euan Murray (Newcastle Falcons), Ross Rennie (Edinburgh Rugby), Alasdair Strokosch (Gloucester) and Richie Vernon (Sale Sharks).