The former England fly-half has beaten off some high-profile candidates, including World Cup-winning supremo Sir Clive Woodward, for the post.
Andrew, capped 71 times by England, will start his new job on September 1 after spending 11 years at Newcastle as rugby director, a reign which included one Premiership title and two English knock-out cup triumphs.
The 43-year-old's appointment ends an exhaustive search by Twickenham top brass to fill one of the most important jobs in English rugby history.
Woodward and former Australian coach Eddie Jones were also touted for the job, but Andrew's credentials found favour with the four-man interview panel.
Andrew's role will be to head up a department that includes all England representative teams from the senior side through to the under-18s, plus national and regional academies, elite referees, sports science and medicine.