Vickery was left prone on the turf just before half-time after being laid out in a collision that saw lock Simon Shaw sin-binned for a high tackle on France centre Damien Traille.
And England, who have now lost 15 of their last 16 away games, never really recovered.
Flanker Martin Corry took over as leader for the second period, yet England's final World Cup warm-up game before they defend the Webb Ellis Trophy back in France next month effectively ended as a contest when centre Yannick Jauzion powered over for 49th-minute try.
Scrum-half Jean-Baptiste Elissalde put the boot into England by slotting 14 points through four penalties and a conversion, while fly-half Frederic Michalak landed a late penalty.
Jonny Wilkinson, meanwhile, moved above Australian legend Michael Lynagh on Test rugby's all-time points chart, passing his mark of 911 as he kicked three penalties to claim third place behind Welshman Neil Jenkins and former Italy fly-half Diego Dominguez.
Only Argentina have ever beaten France in Marseille, and England never seriously threatened to emulate the Pumas.
It was a another tryless England display, following up their 21-15 home defeat against France last Saturday, leaving head coach Brian Ashton with plenty to contemplate over the coming days before the world champions head to their Paris training base on September 3.