Robinson, 30, said in a statement that his reconstructed left knee was no longer up to top-class rugby.
"The decision to retire was an easy one because of the injury, but the hard part will be getting used to the fact I won't be playing rugby again," the World Cup squad member commented.
"I'd love to keep playing, but sadly injury has put a stop to that. I'm at the stage now with my knee that I would not be able to be managed through a campaign.
"I've had some great moments in my career. Every debut match for the teams I have been part of are special memories for me, and there have been some other great games."
Persistent back and leg injuries restricted the Waikato hard man to just 12 Tests in five years.
Robinson, who made his debut at Twickenham five years ago, returned from career-threatening knee and back injuries to help Waikato to the 2006 national championship.
He returned to the All Blacks squad for last year's European tour, but calf injuries plagued his final season in the game.