Pelous, who previously had an unsuccessful stint as skipper, was named Les Bleus' captain last week after Galthie was forced to pull out with a right shoulder injury picked up during their 38-3 thrashing of Scotland.
And the Stade Toulousain star says he is proud to again take the leadership role after originally holding the job in what proved a difficult period for the national side.
"This gives me great pride, it is a very rewarding feeling," he said. "But I keep in mind that Fabien remains the captain and that I got the armband only for the time he is recovering.
"I am captain on an interim basis but I will deal with the situation with great pleasure."
Pelous, who has 74 caps with the national side, skippered France 15 times between 2000 and June 2001, before handing the leadership over to Galthie, who has since then made that role his own.