The Scotland international has not played since suffering a shoulder injury in the first match of the season in September against Newport Gwent Dragons.
The 29-year-old missed the autumn Test series due to the problem but is now looking for a return to full fitness with Glasgow ahead of the Six Nations.
Petrie said: "I'm really pleased to be starting as it's been a long slog getting back from this injury over the past four months, so it's excellent to get back playing.
"Now I am just looking forward to having a good January and getting in a few solid games for Glasgow."
Glasgow head coach Hugh Campbell is also grateful for the return of his captain.
He added: "We're delighted to have Jon back playing for us.
"In his absence, I think the young guys like John Beattie, John Barclay and Steve Swindall really stepped up and proved that they're very much part of the team here at Glasgow and they all played exceptionally well against some high-calibre opposition.
"However, having a player of Jon's experience in the side will always give us the added bonus of further guidance and leadership on the pitch."