Three-times European champions Toulouse had fallen to a shock defeat to Glasgow Warriors just a week ago, while 1998 Heineken Cup winners Bath had crept past Newport Gwent Dragons in their previous fixture.
Those results meant it was Bath who topped the pool with one game remaining, and that was the way the group finished as both sides took two points apiece to finish with four wins, a lose and a draw from their six matches.
Bath had outscored their illustrious opponents by two tries to nil in the return fixture back in October but neither side were able to break the deadlock this time around.
The home side were first on the scoreboard inside three minutes courtesy of a Butch James penalty but Toulouse were level shortly afterwards.
Jean-Baptiste Elissalde made it 3-apiece with a penalty of his own and that was the way it stayed throughout an attritional 80 minutes.
With the rain pouring down for the entire first period and some of the second, territory was the key for both sides. As a result, phase play was hard to come by and kicking was heavily employed ahead of attractive running from deep.
Both teams made plenty of mistakes but their character and determination was never in doubt.
Bath looked the more likely to win the game in the closing stages but the Toulouse defence held firm to prevent the English side from returning to The Rec in the last eight.
Bath now travel to perennial rivals Leicester in a repeat of the 2006 Heineken Cup, while Toulouse will take on top seeds Cardiff Blues in the Welsh capital.