Nothing other than a win over England next Saturday will give them any chance of making the last eight and even that may not be enough after Lucas Amorosino's late try for the Pumas and Dan Parks' even later drop goal miss.
"This is our last chance," said Robinson, who faces the frustration of being the first coach not to lead Scotland to the quarter-finals in seven World Cup tournaments.
"The guys knew that it was a six-day turnaround, knew this game was going to be tough and they'll be ready to go in Auckland.
"Come 8.30 next Saturday there will be a Scotland side very fired up and a Scotland side I believe will be able to go out and win a game.
"Tactically, we'll look at where England are and where we are. We'll have some things up our sleeve ready to play England. We've got to put ourselves into a position to win the game."
Despite defeat against the side that knocked them out of the last World Cup at the quarter-final stage, Robinson insisted the Scottish people should be proud of their team's performance.
The former England boss was pleased with much of the display in a rain-sodden Wellington but admitted that a single lapse in concentration cost Scotland dear.
"Thirty seconds of madness has really cost us," added Robinson.
"We lost the game of rugby. We got to 12-6 and I felt we were in control of the game. The reason why we lost this game was just a moment of dropping off concentration.
"I thought it was a really good performance, but it's about being able to finish teams off. You're playing in the best tournament in the world and you've got to be able to finish a side like Argentina off because they're very good at staying in a game.
"I think you've got to take your hat off to Argentina as well, to find a way of being able to win a game when in that second half I thought they were outplayed. They were able to find an answer, which is disappointing from our side, but their never say die attitude got them through.
"I know Scottish supporters will be hurting about the result, but they have to take a lot of pride in the way the team went out and played. We certainly understand how tough it is at times supporting your country, but you should be proud of the team. "
And rather than feel sorry for themselves after Argentina's Felipe Contepomi admitted he should have penalised for offside when chasing down Parks' fluffed three-pointer, Robinson insists Scotland will now throw everything they have into finishing with a win.
"In all sport there's lots of ifs and buts. The referee didn't give the call when we wanted it to be given.
"Whether we believe it should have been given or not he didn't give the call and we're disappointed that he didn't, but that's sport."