"After 541 games of competitive rugby, I think the time is right to stop," said Robinson, who was a Test Lion in both 2001 and 2005.
"I need a knee operation and I have been thinking about retiring once and for all over the past couple of months."
Robinson had originally retired after the 2007 World Cup but returned to action in a surprise switch to Fylde last year. The World Cup winning wing ended a season-long stint as head coach of Sale Sharks to lace his boots in England's fourth-tier.
But the 36-year-old has now decided to call it a day once and for all, although he still intends to play the odd charity fixture when required.
"I have ticked almost every box there is to tick, so it was a pretty easy decision to retire," added the former Wigan Warriors and Great Britain Rugby League star.
"I have had a fantastic career and a good year with Fylde, especially with the promotion to National League One. But it is the right time to quit while I am ahead.
"When I look back and look at the stats, World Cups, Lions tours and Challenge Cups, I can certainly look back with some fantastic memories.
"There are other things for me to do now with my business interests, although I will play a few charity games to keep fit."
Robinson won 51 caps for his country following his switch to the 15-aside version of the sport in late 2000, scoring 28 tries and becoming the first mixed-race player and former rugby league international to captain England.
He was a surprise inclusion when the Lions toured Australia in the summer of 2001 as he was yet to start a rugby union international. But Robinson proved his worth in some style Down Under, grabbing five tries on his Lions debut against a Queensland Presidents XV and then adding a sensational solo effort in the victorious first Test against the Wallabies.
Robinson was also a try scorer in England's World Cup Final triumph over the same opposition in 2003 and went on to tour New Zealand with the Lions two years later, earning two more Test caps in the first two internationals.