His achievements were recently recognised with the award of an OBE in the New Year's Honours List.
Robinson, 33, scored 28 tries in 51 Tests for England, and toured Australia (2001) and New Zealand (2005) with the British and Irish Lions.
He becomes the award's first English winner since Martin Johnson in 2003/04, while the recipient last season was Robinson's ex-Sale colleague Jason White.
Robinson is due to receive the award in London on Monday night, when Argentina's World Cup captain Agustin Pichot will also be honoured.
Pichot, who led Argentina to the World Cup semi-finals, has won the RUWC Special Award, which has only been presented nine times since 1991.
Previous winners include Sir Clive Woodward, Will Carling, Jason Leonard and Francois Pienaar.