The Sale Sharks captain enjoyed a glittering international career the high point of which was winning the World Cup in 2003 when he scored England's only try in the final.
The 32-year-old won 39 caps after switching codes having made a name for himself in rugby league.
Robinson said: "I am delighted to have been named in the squad, and I am looking forward to meeting up with the players at the end of the month.
While Robinson will meet some of England's fresh young talent when he reports for training at Twickenham on January 22, he can also reacquaint himself with World Cup colleagues such as 35-year-old Mike Catt, fly-half Jonny Wilkinson, Gloucester centre Mike Tindall and Northampton hooker Steve Thompson.
Catt toured Australia with England last summer, and although he missed out on the autumn Tests, his supreme midfield pedigree has always excited Ashton since the pair first worked together at Bath a dozen years ago.
Catt said: "It's great to get the chance to contribute to England again, and I am looking forward to playing with the likes of Phil Vickery and Jason Robinson.
"There is a good combination of youth and experience among the players. Obviously, I am especially pleased for Shane Geraghty - he is an outstanding talent for the future."
Catt's Coventry-born London Irish colleague Geraghty played for Ireland at under-16 level before representing England at every subsequent age group up to, and including, under-21s.
Geraghty said: "I am delighted and surprised to be included in the Six Nations squad.
"It is a great honour to be named in the same squad as players like Jason Robinson, Phil Vickery, Martin Corry and Mike Catt. I am fortunate that Mike is also involved as I can continue to benefit from his great experience at international, as well as club, level."