The 24-year-old Edinburgh back-rower missed out on last weekend’s defeat to Ireland but has recovered from a thigh strain to take his place ahead of clubmate Nick Haining.
Edinburgh tighthead Simon Berghan also makes the bench in the only other change to the matchday 23, having been ruled out in Dublin on the day of the game due to illness.
Bradbury was among the scorers in last year’s memorable 11-try Calcutta Cup encounter at Twickenham and will feature in an all-Edinburgh back-row with Jamie Ritchie and Hamish Watson.
Ahead of them in an unchanged tight-five will be Glasgow Warriors second rows Scott Cummings and Jonny Gray, and clubmates Fraser Brown (hooker) and Zander Fagerson (tighthead prop), with Edinburgh’s Rory Sutherland continuing at loosehead.
Ali Price and Adam Hastings will continue their club partnership at Test level, with fellow Warriors Huw Jones and Sam Johnson – try-scorers against England in 2018 and 2019 respectively – in midfield.
Captain and full-back Stuart Hogg, a two-time British & Irish Lions tourist, anchors a back-three with Sean Maitland (Saracens) and Blair Kinghorn (wing).
Townsend said: “We were proud of parts of our performance in Dublin at a very difficult venue. The challenge for the squad is to replicate that level and take our chances when they come, in order to win tight games.
“We were disappointed not to beat Ireland but the opportunity to face England, against whom we are bidding to retain the Calcutta Cup, is one that excites players, coaches and supporters alike.
“England are an excellent team whose run to the Rugby World Cup final was no fluke.
“They will be smarting from their opener in Paris and Eddie [Jones, Head Coach] will have them primed to come to Edinburgh and put in an improved performance.
“This famous fixture is one that stands out given the history surrounding it and we will have to be at our very best to stand a chance of winning against our oldest rivals.”
Scotland team to play England at BT Murrayfield Stadium
15. Stuart Hogg (Exeter Chiefs) (c)
14. Sean Maitland (Saracens)
13. Huw Jones (Glasgow Warriors)
12. Sam Johnson (Glasgow Warriors)
11. Blair Kinghorn (Edinburgh)
10. Adam Hastings (Glasgow Warriors)
9. Ali Price (Glasgow Warriors)
1. Rory Sutherland (Edinburgh)
2. Fraser Brown (Glasgow Warriors)
3. Zander Fagerson (Glasgow Warriors)
4. Scott Cummings (Glasgow Warriors)
5. Jonny Gray (Glasgow Warriors)
6. Jamie Ritchie (Edinburgh)
7. Hamish Watson (Edinburgh)
8. Magnus Bradbury (Edinburgh)
16. Stuart McInally (Edinburgh)
17. Allan Dell (London Irish)
18. Simon Berghan (Edinburgh)
19. Ben Toolis (Edinburgh)
20. Nick Haining (Edinburgh)
21. George Horne (Glasgow Warriors)
22. Rory Hutchinson (Northampton Saints)
23. Chris Harris (Gloucester)